Import into RefWorks 1. Introduction The study of adult learning—andragogy—has emerged as a learning framework due to its increasing popularity in the past four decades.
Page history last edited by Gayla S. Keesee 1 year, 5 months ago Just as there is no one theory that explains how humans learn, no single theory of adult learning has emerged to unify the field. As a teacher, writer, and leader in the field of adult education, Knowles was an innovator, responding to the needs of the field as he perceived them and, as such, he was a key figure in the growth and practice of adult education throughout the Western world.
However, as many critics have noted, both his theory and practice embodied his own value system. It is, as Knowles noted, a set of assumptions providing one piece of the adult learning puzzle. The term itself was not new. European adult educators had been using it consistently to refer to both the practical aspects of adult teaching and learning and to the academic study of adult education.
From Pedagogy to AndragogyKnowlesp. The second edition of his book, however, marked a rethinking in Knowles original conception of andragogy as characterizing only adult learners—as indicated in the change in subtitles from Andragogy Versus Pedagogy to From Pedagogy to Andragogy.
His most recent conclusion was that the use of andragogical and pedagogical principles is to be determined by the situation and not by the age of the learner. The two dimensions of andragogy as elaborated by Knowles are its assumptions about the characteristics of adult learners and the process elements of adult education that stem from these characteristics.
He initially related four basic assumptions and added a fifth and sixth in later publications. As people mature, they move being a dependent personality toward being more self-directed Experience: As people mature, they amass a growing set of experiences that provide a fertile resource for learning Readiness to learn: As people mature, they are more interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their jobs or personal lives Orientation to learning: As people mature, their time perspective changes from gathering knowledge for future use to immediate application of knowledge.
As such, adult learners become more problem-centered rather than subject-centered Knowles, Motivation to learn: As people mature, they become more motivated by various internal incentives, such as need for self-esteem, curiosity, desire to achieve, and satisfaction of accomplishment Relevance: As people mature, they need to know why they need to learn something Knowles, Furthermore, because adults manage other aspects of their lives, they are capable of directing or, at least, assisting in the planning and implementation of their own learning.
Teachers have a responsibility to encourage and nurture this movement. Adults have a deep psychological need to be generally self-directing, but they may be dependent in certain temporary situations.Dusan Savicevic, who provided Knowles with the term andragogy, explicitly claims andragogy as a discipline, the subject of which is the study of education and learning of adults in all its forms of expression' (Savicevic, , p.
97, similarly Henschke, , Reischmann, ). Tugce Nida Sevin What is Andragogy and its Effects on Today’s Design of Learning for Adults? Education of adults has always been an issue, but there has been very little interest or analysis of adult learning.
You can conclude from the above that pedagogy is a child-focused teaching approach, whereas andragogy an adult-focused teaching approach; or, formally, pedagogy is the art and science of helping kids learn, whereas andragogy is the art and science of .
Summary: Andragogy refers to a theory of adult learning that details some of the ways in which adults learn differently than iridis-photo-restoration.com example, adults tend to be more self-directed, internally motivated, and ready to learn. Teachers can draw on concepts of andragogy to increase the effectiveness of their adult education classes.
When modern people use the words pedagogy and andragogy, I sense there is a meaning implied that is understood by our wider culture. In the case of pedagogy, the general definition implied the connection of the teaching by the teacher, to the learning of the student especially to the child.
The best known theory of adult learning is Knowles’ andragogy.
As a teacher, writer, and leader in the field of adult education, Knowles was an innovator, responding to the needs of the field as he perceived them and, as such, he was a key figure in the growth and practice of adult education throughout the Western world.