The divide between socialists, anarchists and capitalists widened as proximity drew near in the rising populous of urban America. What had been portrayed as the glistening hope of freedom and opportunity for so many new migrants was now a country teeming with anti-immigrant protest. This outcry lead to an urgency for further statistical analysis among Jews, who sought rectification of the claims made against them. Kehillah comes from the Hebrew route Kahal, meaning a governing body or community.
The rising tide of nativism—the fear of foreigners—had deep roots in anti-Catholicism and a fear of foreign radicals. These beliefs and the link to immigration restriction had widespread support among many well-educated elites.
The Immigration Restriction League, founded by young Harvard-educated Boston Brahmins inadvocated a literacy test to slow the tide of immigration Bernard Cities, where most immigrants settled, were derided and feared as places filled with dangerous people and radical ideas Hawley These sentiments were often formulated by intellectuals, but they resonated with many white Americans who were reared in rather parochial and homogenous rural and small town environments.
While some reformers, such as Jane Addams, went to work to alleviate the many problems of urban slums, others such as Henry Adams, the descendant of two American presidents and a noted man of letters, expressed virulent nativism and anti-Semitism Baltzell The Chinese Exclusion Act of was the first step toward a closed society.
From the s to the s, a diverse set of groups, ranging from the old line New England elites to the Progressive Movement in the Midwest and to the Ku Klux Klan led a campaign to halt immigration from undesirable immigrants from Europe Higham ; Jones In the early decades of the 20th century the nascent pseudo-science of Eugenics was used to support claims of the inferiority of the new immigrants relative to old stock Americans.
Passing the national origins quotas in the early s was intended to exclude everyone from Asia and Africa and to sharply lower the number of arrivals from Southern and Eastern Europe.
The period from towhen a highly restrictive immigration policy was in place, was exceptional in American history. For those who were reared in this era, it might seem that the high levels of immigration experienced during the last three decades of the 20th century are unusual.
However, high levels of immigration characterized most of the 18th and 19th centuries as well as the first two decades of the 20th. The impact of the Amendments to the Immigration and Nationality Act, also known as the Hart-Cellar Act, was a surprise to policy makers and many experts.
The primary intent of the Act was to repeal the national origin quotas enacted in the s, which were considered discriminatory by the children and grandchildren of Southern and Eastern European immigrants. The advocates of reform in the s were not pushing for a major new wave of immigration.
Their expectation was that there would be a small increase of arrivals from Italy, Greece, and a few other European countries as families that were divided by the immigration restrictions of the s were allowed to be reunited, but that no long-term increase would result Reimers The new criteria for admission under the Act were family reunification and scarce occupational skills Keely The new preference system allowed highly skilled professionals, primarily doctors, nurses, and engineers from Asian countries, to immigrate and eventually to sponsor their families.
About the same time, and largely independently of the Immigration Act, immigration from Latin America began to rise. Legal and undocumented migration from Mexico surged after a temporary farm worker program known as the Bracero Program was shut down in Massey, Durand, and Malone Beginning in the s, there were several waves of Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Hmong refugees following the collapse of American-supported regimes in Southeast Asia.
Each of these streams of immigration as well as refugee inflows has spawned secondary waves of immigration as family members followed. Bythere were over 30 million foreign-born persons in the United States, of whom almost one third arrived in the prior decade.
Adding together immigrants and their children the second generationmore than 60 million people—or one in five Americans—have recent roots from other countries U. Bureau of the Census Although the current levels of immigration are not equal—in relative terms—to the Age of Mass Migration in the early 20th century, the absolute numbers of contemporary immigrants far exceed that of any prior time in American history or the experience of any other country.
American history cannot be separated from the history of immigration. Irish immigrants worked as laborers in cities and were the major source of labor in the construction of transportation networks, including canals, railroads, and roads. Some have estimated that the manpower advantage of the Union forces during the Civil War was largely due to immigrants who had settled in the northern states Gallman Immigrants have also played an important role in the transition to an urban industrial economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Immigrant workers have always been over-represented in skilled trades, mining, and as peddlers, merchants, and laborers in urban areas.
Immigrants and their children were the majority of workers in the garment sweatshops of New York, the coal fields of Pennsylvania, and the stockyards of Chicago. The cities of America during the age of industrialization were primarily immigrant cities Gibson and Jung The rapidly expanding industrial economy of the North and Midwest drew disproportionately on immigrant labor from to and then on African American workers from the South from to Inabout three quarters of the populations of many large cities were composed of immigrants and their children, including New York, Chicago, Boston, Cleveland, San Francisco, Buffalo, Milwaukee, and Detroit Carpenter Immigrants and their children remained the majority of the urban population, especially in the industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest until the s Carpenter The large influx of Catholic immigrants into the United States in the mid to late nineteenth century drastically changed the perception of Catholicism in America.
In the early ’s, the American Catholic population was a small sect of English Catholics who were generally well educated and wealthy.
A Century of Informality on the United States-Mexico Border. By The hostility of old line Americans to “foreigners” accelerated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as racial ideology and anti-Semitism also became part of American consciousness.
it might seem that the high levels of immigration experienced during the last three.
During the late s, a series of droughts devastated the West. By the end of the 19th century a few western states had granted women full voting rights, By the early 20th century, most of the larger cities and more than half the states had established an eight-hour day on public works.
Equally important were the Workers' Compensation. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an "open borders" United States absorbed millions of European immigrants.
History Unit 1. STUDY. PLAY.
Census records reveal that the average urban American of the late 19th and early 20th centuries experienced. the desire for economic betterment. The main reason for immigration to the United States during the 19th century was.
Between and , almost fifteen million immigrants entered the United States, a number which dwarfed immigration figures for previous periods. Unlike earlier nineteenth century immigration, which consisted primarily of immigrants from Northern Europe, the bulk of the new arrivals hailed mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe.