Codes and symbols of European tools, part I.
How much did the Industrial Revolution change society? Did the Industrial Revolution improve life for most people? The only way to investigate these questions is to compare and contrast industrial with pre-industrial society.
In doing so, we will also discover a number of ways that the roots of industry run deep into the pre-industrial era. For starters, the pace of change in preindustrial society was extremely slow.
In contrast, over the past few decades, people have witnessed and grown accustomed to high tech inventions—such as personal computers, mobile phones, and the Internet—that have transformed out lives.
We might then assume that other eras in history experienced a similarly rapid pace in technological progress. And yet, for almost all of human history, quite the opposite is true. One scholar even observed that an average Roman from the 1st century A.
Daily life in pre-industrial times changed very little for Europeans. Almost all people lived and worked in the country. Children learned to milk cows, churn butter, and tend to farm animals.
Generation after generation, rural families relied on tools that had changed little over the centuries, such as wooden plows dependent on beasts of burden to pull them.
For centuries, the English diet consisted mostly of dark rye bread and porridge, with very little meat. As a rule, Europeans ate few fruits or vegetables, believing they could cause disease, depression, and flatulence 5. Most people were illiterate and rarely bathed. Ignorant of microbiology and the germ theory, medieval and early modern physicians relied more on astrology and bloodletting than science.
This traditional agrarian lifestyle and outlook held true for generations. Another clear trend in pre-industrial society saw the population not growing very much from generation to generation.
Poverty, war, plague, and poor hygiene resulted in high death rates, especially among young people. Epidemics of influenza, typhoid fever, typhus, dysentery, and plague were frighteningly common.
In the extreme, the infamous Black Death killed 25 million Europeans from to out of a total population of 80 million Pre-industrial population did not increase substantially in Europe for hundreds of years.
For example, the area of Europe now known as Germany had an estimated population of 12 million in the year To put that in perspective, the U. Wealth in pre-industrial European society was concentrated in the hands of the few, while poverty was common.
And in England inone contemporary estimated that of a total population of 5.English Towns in Transition, –By Peter Clark and Paul Slack. Oxford University Press. vii + pp. Cloth £; paperback £ The World's Greatest Paintings () By Old Masters, like Van Eyck, Leonardo, Michelangelo, Rembrandt and Goya.
Renaissance European History including developments in politics, economics, culture, social life, religion and art.
No other era is as easy to summarize as the EARLY MODERN () era. This is the era the Europeans "wake-up", expand, and build empires. The UK before the Industrial Revolution 1. UK in Population: 11,, Only 20% of people live or work in cities.
About 80% of people work in the countryside. London is the only city with more than 10, people. Most people die in their mid thirties, and many children die in infancy.
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