From our head to our toes, our bones provide support for our bodies and help form our shape.
Interaction of the Two Systems Links The single-celled protozoan ancestors of animals had their weight supported by water and were able to move by cilia or other simple organelles.
The evolution of large and more complex organisms animals necessitated the development of support and locomotion systems. Animals use their muscular and skeletal systems for support, locomotion, and maintaining their shape. This movement is a result of contraction of muscles.
The skeleton helps transmit that movement. Skeletons are either a fluid-filled body cavity, exoskeletonsor internal skeletons. Hydrostatic skeletons consist of fluid-filled closed chambers.
Internal pressures generated by muscle contractions cause movement as well as maintain the shape of the animals, such as the sea anemone and worms.
The sea anemone has one set of longitudinal muscles in the outer layer of the body, and a layer of circular muscles in the inner layer of the body. The anemone can elongate or contract its body by contracting one or the other set of muscles. Structure and function of a hydrostatic skeleton.
Images from Purves et al. Exoskeletons are characteristic of the Phylum Arthropoda. Exoskeletons are hard segments that cover the muscles and visceral organs. Muscles for movement attach to the inner surface of the exoskeleton.
Exoskeletons restrict the growth of the animal, thus it must shed its exoskeleton or molt to form a new one that has room for growth. The bulk and weight of the exoskeleton and associated mechanical problems limits the size animals can attain.
Spiders use a combination of an exoskeleton for protection and fluid pressure for movement. Exoskeleton of an insect and its relation to the muscular system. Image from Purves et al.
Muscles are on the outside of the endoskeleton. Cartilage and bone are types of connective tissue. Sharks, and rays have skeletons composed entirely of cartilage; other vertebrates have an embryonic cartilage skeleton progressively replaced by bone as they mature and develop.
Some areas of the human body, however, retain cartilage in the adult: Functions of Muscles and Bones Back to Top The skeleton and muscles function together as the musculoskeletal system. This system often treated as two separate systems, the muscularand skeletal plays an important homeostatic role: Certain cells in the bones produce immune cells as well as important cellular components of the blood.
Bone also helps regulate blood calcium levels, serving as a calcium sink. Rapid muscular contraction is important in generating internal heat, another homeostatic function.
The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons Back to Top The axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. The human skull, or craniumhas a number of individual bones tightly fitted together at immovable joints.
At birth many of these joints are not completely sutured together as bone, leading to a number of "soft spots" or fontanelswhich do not completely join until the age of months.The relationship between the skeletal and muscular systems Examples and locations of major bones Long bones are some of the longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus and Tibia.
Interconnection Between Muscle And Bone ~Cross-section of a bone~ Articular cartilage - is a white, smooth tissue which covers the ends of bones in joints. Periosteum - is a fibrous sheath that covers iridis-photo-restoration.com contains the blood vessels and nerves that provide nourishment and sensation to the bone.
The bone becomes longer as a result of growth plates found between the diaphysis and the epiphysis. At this plate, cartilage is continuously formed and then turned into bone. This process is called ossification. Feb 28, · A close relationship between bone and muscle is observed during development and growth.
Several studies suggest that the Indian Hedgehog pathway and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 may play important roles in the interactions between muscle and bone during development. Interconnection Between Muscle And Bone ~Cross-section of a bone~ Articular cartilage - is a white, smooth tissue which covers the ends of bones in joints.
Periosteum - is a fibrous sheath that covers iridis-photo-restoration.com contains the blood vessels and nerves that provide nourishment and sensation to the bone.
The bones and muscles are supported by connective tissue, which plays an integral role in structural support. Ligaments consist of densely packed collagen fibers that connect bone to bone.
Their high tensile strength keeps the skeletal system supported while allowing movement at the joints.