June 7, Death Date: August 7, Place of Birth: Her method of rating a newborn's health in five major categories allows doctors to quickly establish if a child requires medical attention. Implementation of this basic practice throughout the United States and around the world resulted in a significant increase in infant survival rates.
Her father, a businessman, and other members of the family shared a love of music, and Apgar played the violin during family concerts. Apgar's childhood home also contained a basement laboratory, where her father built a telescope and pursued scientific experiments with electricity and radio Essays on virginia apgar electromagnetic waves in the range of radio frequencies.
Perhaps due to this atmosphere of curiosity and investigation, Apgar decided she wanted a scientific career in the field Essays on virginia apgar medicine.
After graduating from high school, where she played in the school orchestra and participated in athletics, she entered Mount Holyoke College with the plan of becoming a doctor.
Although she had to take a number of jobs to support herself through college, she graduated with a bachelor's degree in Apgar's financial situation did not improve when she enrolled at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University in New York City the following September.
The United States would soon be severely affected by the Great Depression —39a period of nationwide economic crisis. Determined to stay in school, Apgar borrowed money in order to complete her classes.
She emerged in with a medical degree and a fourth-place rank in her graduating class, but also with a large financial debt. She began to consider how she could best support herself in the medical profession. She saw that even male surgeons were having trouble finding work in New York City.
As a woman in what was then a male-dominated profession, she realized that her chances of success were slim. She felt that she was more likely to be successful in the field of anesthesiology, the study or practice of giving patients anesthesia.
Administered by physicians called anesthesiologists, anesthetics are drugs or gas that numbs the pain of medical procedures or causes patients to lose consciousness before a procedure is performed.
Traditionally nurses had been responsible for administering anesthesia, but at that time doctors had also begun entering the field. Women physicians in particular were encouraged to pursue medical anesthesiology, perhaps because it was still considered a female area.
Therefore in Apgar began a two-year program of study and work in anesthesiology. Apgar's choice of career allowed her to realize her goal of securing a job.
She was hired as director of the anesthesia division at Columbia University in Her new position, however, proved to be a challenging one.
She struggled to get surgeons to recognize the anesthesiologist as a fellow doctor who was their equal, not their inferior. She eventually increased the number of physicians in the anesthesiology division, however, and in won adequate funding for the division and its employees after threatening to quit her post if the school refused her requests.
A few years later Columbia University created a separate department of anesthesia for training physicians and conducting research.
When the head of the new department was selected inhowever, Apgar was passed over in favor of a man. Instead she was named a full professor in the department, making her the first woman to reach such a level at Columbia.
The Apgar Newborn Scoring System It was in this position as a teacher and researcher that Apgar would make her greatest contributions to medicine over the next ten years.
She began to focus her work in the area of anesthesia used during childbirth. Apgar realized that the period just after a baby is born is an extremely important time for many infants.
At the time babies were not usually evaluated assessed in regard to their health carefully at birth by doctors, who were often more concerned with the health of the mother. Because of this lack of an organized examination, many life-threatening conditions were not identified in infants.
To provide a quick and efficient way to decide which babies required special care, Apgar created a five-part test that scored a child's heart rate, respiration breathingmuscle tone, color, and reflexes.
The test, known as the Apgar Newborn Scoring System, was to be performed one minute after birth. This later expanded to five and ten minutes as well. Developed inApgar's system eventually became a worldwide standard among physicians for determining a child's chance of survival and rate of development.
Another victory for infant health was won with Apgar's research into the effects of anesthesia given to mothers during childbirth. During the time she researched these effects, Apgar found that the anesthesia called cyclopropane had a noticeable negative effect on a baby's overall condition.
She immediately stopped using this anesthesia for mothers in labor, and other doctors across the country quickly did so also after Apgar published a report on her research.
Birth defect research After a more than twenty-year career at Columbia, Apgar left her post as professor to earn a master of public health degree at Johns Hopkins University.
Her new career took her to the March of Dimes organization, an organization that provides services and support to children and pregnant women. In she was hired as the head of the division on congenital birth defects physical or developmental abnormalities that are caused before birth.
In she became the head of the March of Dimes research program, and during her time in this role she changed the foundation's focus so that it concentrated on trying to prevent birth defects. In an effort to educate the public about this topic, she also gave many lectures and cowrote a book titled Is My Baby All Right?
Later, as a professor at Cornell University, she became the first U. During her lifetime Apgar made significant contributions to science not only in the laboratory, but also in the classroom.[Virginia Apgar at the Welsh National Museum in Cardiff, Wales].
Photographic Print. 1 Image. Obstetric Anesthesia and a Scorecard for Newborns, Dr. Virginia Apgar once said she didn't marry because she hadn't found a man who could cook.
|What Is the Apgar Score?||Google Doodle honors Dr. Virginia Apgar, savior of countless babies Her test helps identify newborns who may be having health issues.|
|Virginia Apgar - Wikipedia||She was discouraged by Dr. Allen Whipplethe chairman of surgery at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Centerfrom continuing her career as a surgeon because he had seen many women attempt to be successful surgeons and ultimately fail.|
|Google doodle honors Dr. Virginia Apgar, savior of countless babies - CNET||She was discouraged by Dr. Allen Whipplethe chairman of surgery at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Centerfrom continuing her career as a surgeon because he had seen many women attempt to be successful surgeons and ultimately fail.|
Thu, Nov 15, essays, a book and more. She worked almost up until her death at the age of Virginia Apgar forever changed the field of perinatology (the care of infants around the time of birth). She was the creator of the Apgar Newborn Scoring System, a method of evaluating the health of infants minutes after birth in order to make sure they receive proper medical iridis-photo-restoration.com: Aug 07, Jun 06, · During the s and '40s, Dr.
Virginia Apgar noticed a troubling trend involving newborns. While the infant mortality rate in the US had declined, the rate of . What Is the Apgar Score? The Apgar score is a test given to newborns soon after birth. This test checks a baby's heart rate, muscle tone, and other signs to see if extra medical care or emergency care is needed.
She was the youngest of the three children of Charles E. Apgar, an insurance executive, and Helen May Apgar. The family was a musical one, and Virginia learned to play the violin as a child, and continued throughout her life.