New research suggests that beneficial bacteria that reside toward the end of our digestive tract ferment both the antioxidants and the fiber in cocoa. In their deep-gut alchemy these microbes create anti-inflammatory compounds that have been linked to the cardiovascular and other benefits from dark chocolate consumption. Previous research suggested that cocoa components could be fermented to generate beneficial compounds. So John Finleya professor of food sciences at Louisiana State University, and his students took the work a step further to see what else the body might be getting from this common treat—and how.
Components Historical depiction of the digestive system, 17th century Persia There are several organs and other components involved in the digestion of food.
The organs known as the accessory digestive glands are the livergall bladder and pancreas. Other components include the mouthsalivary glandstongueteeth and epiglottis. The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract GI tract. This starts at the mouth and ends at the anuscovering a distance of about nine 9 metres.
Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste matter is stored prior to defecation. A major digestive organ is the stomach.
Within its mucosa are millions of embedded gastric glands. Their secretions are vital to the functioning of the organ. There are many specialised cells of the GI tract.
These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cellspancreatic duct cellsenterocytes and microfold cells. Some parts of the digestive system are also part of the excretory systemincluding the large intestine.
The mouth consists of two regions; the vestibule and the oral cavity proper. The vestibule is the area between the teeth, lips and cheeks,  and the rest is the oral cavity proper. Most of the oral cavity is lined with oral mucosaa mucous membrane that produces a lubricating mucusof which only a small amount is needed.
Mucous membranes vary in structure in the different regions of the body but they all produce a lubricating mucus, which is either secreted by surface cells or more usually by underlying glands. The mucous membrane in the mouth continues as the thin mucosa which lines the bases of the teeth.
The main component of mucus is a glycoprotein called mucin and the type secreted varies according to the region involved.
Mucin is viscous, clear, and clinging. Underlying the mucous membrane in the mouth is a thin layer of smooth muscle tissue and the loose connection to the membrane gives it its great elasticity.
The palate is hard at the front of the mouth since the overlying mucosa is covering a plate of bone ; it is softer and more pliable at the back being made of muscle and connective tissue, and it can move to swallow food and liquids.
The soft palate ends at the uvula.
At either side of the soft palate are the palatoglossus muscles which also reach into regions of the tongue. These muscles raise the back of the tongue and also close both sides of the fauces to enable food to be swallowed.
Salivary glands Oral cavity There are three pairs of main salivary glands and between and 1, minor salivary glands, all of which mainly serve the digestive process, and also play an important role in the maintenance of dental health and general mouth lubrication, without which speech would be impossible.
All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these are the parotid glands —their secretion is mainly serous. The next pair are underneath the jaw, the submandibular glandsthese produce both serous fluid and mucus.
The serous fluid is produced by serous glands in these salivary glands which also produce lingual lipase. The third pair are the sublingual glands located underneath the tongue and their secretion is mainly mucous with a small percentage of saliva. Within the oral mucosaand also on the tongue, palates, and floor of the mouth, are the minor salivary glands; their secretions are mainly mucous and they are innervated by the facial nerve CN7.
There are other glands on the surface of the tongue that encircle taste buds on the back part of the tongue and these also produce lingual lipase. Lipase is a digestive enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids fats.
These glands are termed Von Ebner's glands which have also been shown to have another function in the secretion of histatins which offer an early defense outside of the immune system against microbes in food, when it makes contact with these glands on the tongue tissue.
Saliva Saliva moistens and softens food, and along with the chewing action of the teeth, transforms the food into a smooth bolus. The bolus is further helped by the lubrication provided by the saliva in its passage from the mouth into the esophagus.
Also of importance is the presence in saliva of the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase. Amylase starts to work on the starch in carbohydratesbreaking it down into the simple sugars of maltose and dextrose that can be further broken down in the small intestine.
Lipase starts to work on breaking down fats. Lipase is further produced in the pancreas where it is released to continue this digestion of fats. The presence of salivary lipase is of prime importance in young babies whose pancreatic lipase has yet to be developed.
Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B When it reaches the duodenum, pancreatic enzymes break down the glycoprotein and free the vitamin which then binds with intrinsic factor.
Tongue Food enters the mouth where the first stage in the digestive process takes place, with the action of the tongue and the secretion of saliva.These features include the lips, cheeks, roof of the mouth, floor of the mouth, gums, teeth, tongue, and salivary glands (Human Digestive System).
Why Is Dark Chocolate Good for You? Thank Your Microbes. Cocoa is good for your heart because of fermentation by gut bacteria, creating anti-inflammatory compounds that improve blood vessel function. Human digestion begins with portions of the brain Innervated by Cranial Nerves I-XII and C1 of the neck— Cranial Nerve V (Vagus) is the mediator be-tween auto-nomic nervous system and entire. Human digestive system, the system used in the human body for the process of digestion. The human digestive system consists primarily of the digestive tract, or the series of structures and organs through which food and liquids pass during their processing into forms absorbable into the bloodstream.
The lips, cheeks, roof of the mouth, and floor of the mouth are primarily used for containment of food. How Does Digestion Work and How Can I Improve Mine? (Animated graphics).
The digestion process also involves creating waste to be eliminated. The digestive tract (or gastrointestinal tract) is a long twisting tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. Submission Method A journals make the final published version of all NIH-funded articles available in PubMed Central (PMC) no later than 12 months after publication without author involvement.
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The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract—also called the GI tract or digestive tract—and the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. This fact sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for more information.